1:1 matching - comparison of current biometric data with only one claimed reference; typical for the verification use case
1:many matching - comparison of current biometric data with database of users. This can be a small group or a larger population and the process is named identification…
2D fake - a printout of a genuine fingerprint targeting to fool a sensor
3D fake - artificial fingerprint made of e.g. rubber, gelatin or silicone to mimic the fingerprint of a legitimate user
Active Area - area of a fingerprint sensor that actually senses signals from a finger under touch (excluding all other elements of the sensor)
API - Application Programming Interface - Set of functions exported to application developers for using hardware or functions
ASIC - Application Specific Integrated Circuit - Customized integrated circuit for a particular purpose
Area sensor - (also called "Touch Sensor") Fingerprint sensor format in the shape of a rectangular area. The user touches the sensor intuitively like a button.
Attempt - Submission of biometric data for comparison with stored reference data
AFIS - Automated Fingerprint Identification System - Highly specialized system for identifying a fingerprint or fragment in a large database; normally operated by governments (criminal AFIS and Border Control)
Bifurcation - Point in a fingerprint where a friction ridge forks or splits to form two ridges
Biometric Data - Data collected during an enrollment, verification or identification process including raw sensor data, processed data, characteristic extracted features.
BSoC - Biometric System-on-Card - System architecture and product including a biometric sensor processing and storage. Mostly also including security functions.
Biometrics - Identification of humans via physical or behavioral characteristics
Bluetooth - Wireless technology standard for interchanging data over short distances
CPU - Central Processing Unit - Main processor in an electronic product
CE - Conformité Européenne - Standards committee and set of tests for electronic products
DCA - Data Capture Asic - System component responsible for controlling a NEXT raw fingerprint sensor
DES - Data Encryption Standard - Common symmetric crypto algorithm
Distortion - Unwanted deviation from the original signal. Distortion is common in low cost optical sensors that extend the outer regions of the touching pane and make the fingerprint image look uneven.
DSP - Digital Signal Processor - specialized microprocessor designed for digital signal processing
dpi - dots per inch - Measure for density of pixels in inches system (common in imaging technology)
EEPROM - Electrically Erasable Programmable ROM - Non-volatile type of memory that can be read fast.
Enrollment - Process of reference data collection in a biometric system
EER - Equal Error Rate - System configuration and statistical event when FMR equals FNMR. EER is one measure for the accuracy of a biometric system although it may not be a pragmatic working point. Sometimes similar to FAR = FRR.
FTA - Failure to Acquire - Failure of a biometric sensor or system to capture useful data from a person presenting a biometric trait
FTE - Failure to Enroll - Failure of a biometric algorithm or system to extract enough characteristic data from a presented biometric trait
Fake fingerprint - artificial fingerprint (2D or 3D) targeting to fool (spoof) a sensor system
FAR - False Acceptance Rate - Probability that a non-legitimate user by chance is accepted in a biometric comparison (final access status after allowed number of attempts)
FMR - False Match Rate - Probability that a non-legitimate user by chance is accepted in a biometric comparison (single trial)
FNMR - False Non-Match Rate - Probability that a legitimate user by chance is not recognized as such and rejected in a biometric comparison (single attempt)
FRR - False Rejection Rate - Probability that a legitimate user by chance is not recognized as such and rejected in a biometric comparison (final access status after allowed number of attempts)
FCC - Federal Communications Commission - (U.S.) regulates interstate and international communications by radio, television, wire, satellite and cable.
FIPS-201 - Federal Information Processing Standard 201 - Standard for Personal Identify Verification of US government employees. For single fingerprint readers, it specifies a minimum resolution of 500dpi and a minimum active area of 0.5x0.65 inches among other requirements.
Fingerprint - Unique pattern of papillary ridges and valleys in the fingers of a human individual
FpVTE - Fingerprint Vendor Technology Evaluation - Fingerprint algorithm evaluation organized by NIST
FVC - Fingerprint Verification Competition - Event and statistical analysis organized by the University of Bologna
Identification - Comparison of currently collected biometric data with a database of enrolled users finding the one matching reference.
Impostor - Person submitting biometric data to a system in an attempt to claim the identity of a legitimate enrolled person.
Incipient ridges - Small ridges without pores between the normal ridges in a fingerprint
OATH - Initiative for Open Authentication - Industry standard for OTP generation
ICC - Integrated Circuit Card - Smart Card with an embedded Microprocessor
IP - Intellectual Property - Set of patents, ownership rights and trade secrets of an organization
IFD - Interface Device - Device for connecting a smart card (ICC) with a host system
ISO - International Standardization Organization - Biggest publishing organization for international industry standards
Latent fingerprint - a fingerprint left on a surface touched by an individual. Latent prints on sensors a potential factor of disturbance for verification.
LED - Light Emitting Diode - Electrical components generating light from current
Match-on-Card - see On-Card Biometric Comparison
Matching - Comparing current biometric feature data with stored reference data
MCU - Micro-Controller Unit - Processor with core, calculation entity and storage entity
MIPS - Million Instructions per Second - Number of instructions carried out per second on a processor
Minutia - Local point pattern in a fingerprint image. Most common types are Bifurcation and Ridge End
Multi-factor Authentication - Authentication process involving a minimum of two different factors from the following categories:
+ possession of device (like a token, key, smart card, ... )
+ knowledge (PIN, password, answer, ... )
+ characteristic, i.e. biometric (finger, face, iris, ... )
Multimodal Biometrics - Using more than one biometric trait to identify a person, e.g. fingerprint and face
NFC - Near Field Communication - Interface specification for contactless communication
Noise - Unwanted disturbing signals in a fingerprint image
NRE - Non-Recurring Engineering - One-time effort in the development or implementation of a project
On-Card Biometric Comparison - Comparison of currently collected biometric data and biometric reference data in a security chip
OTP - One-Time-Password - An algorithm generated number to validate transactions and authentication.
PCBA - PCB Assembly - A printed circuit board with electrical components mounted
Permanent Disability - Situation where an individual permanently cannot use a certain biometric sample, e.g. lost extremity in accident
PIN - Personal Identification Number - a secret number of normally 4 to 8 digits known only to a legitimate user of a security system
Pixel - smallest picture element in a display or sensor
ppcm - pixels per centimeter - measure for the density of pixels, e.g. in a fingerprint sensor
ppi - pixels per inch - see dpi
Population - total group of users of a biometric system
Pore - Ending of a sweat gland duct on the outer skin of a human
PCB - Printed Circuit Board - Board containing conductive and isolated elements to mount and connect electronic components
PID - Product Identifier - Unique identifier for USB products, assigned by the registered vendor; format defined by usb.org.
PKI - Public Key Infrastructure - An architecture of communicating entities holding certified public keys and secret keys.
RF - Radio Frequency - Method and Interface for contactless communication via radio waves
RFID - Radio Frequency Identification - contactless technology using low-power tags for identification based on possession
RAM - Random Access Memory - Memory type in an electronic product that can be read and written fast.
ROM - Read Only Memory - Memory type in an electronic product or components that can only be read.
ROC - Receiver Operating Characteristic - Statistical analysis of biometric algorithm or system strength. FNMR is plotted against FMR - sometimes similar for FRR against FAR
RISC - Reduced Instruction Set Computing - Chip architecture category for microcontrollers.
RoHS - Restriction of Hazardous Substances - Environmental standard for electronic products.
Ridge end - Point in a fingerprint where a friction ridge ends
RSA - Rivest-Shamir-Adleman - popular public key crypto algorithm
Sensor module - Electronic component consisting of a NEXT fingerprint sensor and NEXT DCA mounted to a substrate with discrete electronic components
SPI - Serial Peripheral Interface - Common interface standard for serial communication using 4 pins/wires.
Spoof - see fake fingerprint
SMD - Surface Mounted Device - Production process mounting electronic components on top of a PCB without holes
Swipe sensor - Fingerprint sensor technology that uses a sensor size in the shape of a line requiring the user to sweep the finger over in a smooth and consistane movement.
Template - Characteristic features extracted from a biometric sample, e.g. a fingerprint
Temporary Disability - Situation where an individual temporarily cannot use a biometric sample, e.g. an injured and bandaged finger
TFT - Thin Film Transistor - Display technology relying on transistors
Token - Portable object including unique information for identification, e.g. a smart card
TPM - Trusted Personal Module - Security chip in a notebook or PC
UL - Underwriter Laboratories - US organization for product safety
USB - Universal Serial Bus - Interface, standard and protocol specified by an industry consortium
VID - vendor identifier - unique identifier for registered providers of USB products, administrated by USB.org
Verification - Process of comparing currently collected biometric data with previously stored reference data